Pakistan Movement

The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریک پاکستان) refers to the successful historical movement against British Raj and Indian Congress to have an independent Muslim state named Pakistan created from the separation of the north-western region of theIndian subcontinentpartitioned within or outside the British Indian Empire. It had its origins in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh(present day Uttar Pradesh). Muslims there were a minority, yet their elite had a disproportionate amount of representation in the civil service and a strong degree of cultural and literary influence. The idea of Pakistan spread from Northern India through the Muslimdiaspora of this region, and spread outwards to the Muslim communities of the rest of India.[1] This movement was led by lawyerMuhammad Ali Jinnah, along with other prominent founding fathers of Pakistan including Allama IqbalLiaqat Ali KhanMuhammad Zafarullah KhanAga Khan IIIFatima Jinnah, Bahadur Yar Jung, Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar, Chaudhry KhaliquzzamanA.K. Fazlul HuqSardar Abdur Rab NishtarJogendra Nath MandalVictor TurnerRa’ana Liaquat Ali Khan, and Dr. Sir Ziauddin Ahmed.

The movement ultimately achieved success in 1947, when part of northwest India was partitioned, granted independence and renamed Pakistan.

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[edit]History of the movement

The Muslim League Governing Council at the Lahore session. The woman wearing the black cloak is Muhatarma Amjadi Banu Begum, the wife of Maulana Mohammad AliJauhar, a prominent Muslim League leader. Begum was a leading representative of the UP‘s Muslim women during the years of the Pakistan Movement.[2][3]

[edit]Muslims minority

The 1882 Local Self-Government Act had already troubled Syed Ahmed Khan. When, in 1906, the British announced their intention to establish Legislative Councils, Muhsin al-Mulk, the secretary of both the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference and MAO College, hoped to win a separate Legislative Council for Muslims by making correspondence to several prominent Muslims in different regions of the sub-continent and organising a delegation led by Aga Khan III to meet with Viceroy Lord Minto,[4][5][6][7] a deal to which Minto agreed because it appeared to assist the British divide and rulestrategy.[citation needed]. The delegation consisted of 35 members, who each represented their respective region proportionately, mentioned hereunder.

Aga Khan III in 1936.

Nawab Mohsin ul Mulk,(left) who organized the Simla deputation, with Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (Centre), Sir Syed’s son Justice Syed Mahmood(extreme right). Syed Mahmood was the first Muslim to serve as a High Court judge in the British Raj.

1. Sir Aga Khan III. (Head of the delegation); (Bombay). 2. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. (Aligarh). 3. Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk. (Muradabad). 4. Maulvi Hafiz Hakim Ajmal Khan. (Delhi). 5. Maulvi Syed Karamat Husain. (Allahabad). 6. Maulvi Sharifuddin (Patna). 7. Nawab Syed Sardar Ali Khan (Bombay). 8. Syed Abdul Rauf. (Allahabad). 9. Maulvi Habiburrehman Khan. (Aligarh). 10. Sahibzada Aftab Ahmed Khan. (Aligarh). 11. Abdul Salam Khan. (Rampur). 12. Rais Muhammed Ahtasham Ali. (Lukhnow) 13. Khan Bahadur Muhammed Muzammilullah Khan. (Aligarh). 14. Haji Muhammed Ismail Khan. (Aligarh). 15. Shehzada Bakhtiar Shah. (Calcutta). 16. Malik Umar Hayat Khan Tiwana. (Shahpur). 17. Khan Bahadur Muhammed Shah Deen. (Lahore). 18. Khan Bahadur Syed Nawab Ali Chaudhary. (Memon Singh). 19. Nawab Bahadur Mirza Shuja’at Ali Baig. (Murshidabad). 20. Nawab Nasir Hussain Khan Bahadur. (Patna). 21. Khan Bahadur Syed Ameer Hassan Khan. (Calcutta). 22. Syed Muhammed Imam. (Patna). 23. Nawab Sarfaraz Hussain Khan Bahadur. (Patna). 24. Maulvi Rafeeuddin Ahmed. (Bombay). 25. Khan Bahadur Ahmed Muhaeeuddin. (Madras). 26. Ibraheem Bhai Adamjee Pirbhai. (Bombay). 27. Maulvi Abdul Raheem. (Calcutta). 28. Syed Allahdad Shah. (Khairpur). 29. Maulana H. M. Malik. (Nagpur). 30. Khan Bahadur Col. Abdul Majeed Khan. (Patiala). 31. Khan Bahadur Khawaja Yousuf Shah. (Amritsar). 32. Khan Bahadur Mian Muhammad Shafi. (Lahore). 33. Khan Bahadur Shaikh Ghulam Sadiq. (Amritsar). 34. Syed Nabiullah. (Allahabad). 35. Khalifa Syed Muhammed Khan Bahadur. (Patna).[8]

For Jinnah, Islam laid a cultural base for an ideology of ethnic nationalism whose objective was to gather the Muslim community in order to defend the Muslim minorities. Jinnah’s representation of minority Muslims was quite apparent in 1928, when in the All-Party Muslim Conference, he was ready to swap the advantages of separate electorates for a quota of 33% of seats at the Centre. He maintained his views at the Round Table Conferences, while the Muslims of Punjab and Bengal were vying for a much more decentralized political setup. Many of their requests were met in the 1935 Government of India Act. Jinnah and the Muslim League played a peripheral role at the time and in 1937 could manage to gather only 5% of the Muslim vote. Jinnah refused to back down and went ahead with his plan. He presented the two-nation theory in the now famous Lahore Resolution in March 1940, seeking a separate Muslim state,[9][not specific enough to verify]

The idea of a separate state had first been introduced by Allama Iqbal in his speech in December 1930 as the President of the Muslim League.[10] The state that he visualized included only Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), and Balochistan. Three years later, the name Pakistan was proposed in a declaration in 1933 by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a University of Cambridge graduate. Again, Bengal was left out of the proposal.[11]

In his book Idea of PakistanStephen P. Cohen writes on the influence of South Asian Muslim nationalism on the Pakistan movement:[12]

“It begins with a glorious precolonial state empire when the Muslims of South Asia were politically united and culturally, civilizationally, and strategically dominant. In that era, ethnolinguistic differences were subsumed under a common vision of an Islamic-inspired social and political order. However, the divisions among Muslims that did exist were exploited by the British, who practiced divide and rule politics, displacing the Mughals and circumscribing other Islamic rulers. Moreover, the Hindus were the allies of the British, who used them to strike a balance with the Muslims; many Hindus, a fundamentally insecure people, hated Muslims and would have oppressed them in a one-man, one-vote democratic India. The Pakistan freedom movement united these disparate pieces of the national puzzle, and Pakistan was the expression of the national will of India’s liberated Muslims.”
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