|— City —|
Clockwise from top left to right:Mir Tombs, Pakka Qila, Greenlands flyover bridge, Mehyan Railroad Bridge and Korti Road Bridge, Indus River, Ranikot Fort Walls
Location in Sindh
|Coordinates: 25°22′45″N 68°22′06″ECoordinates: 25°22′45″N 68°22′06″E|
|• Total||3,198 km2 (1,235 sq mi)|
|Elevation||13 m (43 ft)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC+6)|
Hyderabad (Urdu: حیدرآباد), Hyderabad.ogg (help·info) (Sindhi: حيدرآباد ) is the 2nd largest city in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It is the 7th largest city in the country by theWorld Gazetteer Retrieved 22 August 2012. . The city was founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro upon the ruins of a Mauryan fishing village along the bank of theIndus known as Neroon Kot (Sindhi: نيرُون ڪوٽ). Formerly the capital of Sindh, it serves as the HQ of the district of Hyderabad. The last Battle of Amir Talpor and British took place in this city in 1843. Before the creation of Pakistan, it was known as the Paris of India, for its roads used to be washed with river water.
The political boundaries stage the city as a district and the region has seen major political turmoil. From the battles fought against the British occupation to the civilian unrest in the 1980s, the city has lost its glory of past and much of its cultural and architectural heritage lies in tattered ruins.
Hyderabad is a hot and humid city in the south of the nation and has been a staging point for literary campaigns particularly oriented towards the Sindhi language and a birthplace of a few influential poets and Sufi dervishes. Rich with culture and tradition, the city is the largest bangle producer in the world and serves as a transit between the rural and the urban Sindh.
Stationed close to important architectural digs like the pre-Harappan Amri at 110 km, the region holds extreme importance to archaeologists the world over. The city is also known for its medical and educational institutions. It is also home to one of the oldest universities in the region, the University of Sindh.
Hyderabad is a city built on three hillocks cascading over each other. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty founded the city in 1768 over the ruins of Neroon Kot (Nerunor Nerun Kot) (meaning the place of Neroon), a small fishing village on the banks of River Indus named after its ruler Neroon. A formal concept of the city was laid out by his son, Sarfraz Khan in 1782. When the foundations were laid, the city obtained the nickname Heart of the Mehran as the ruler Mian Ghulam Shah himself was said to have fallen in love with the city. In 1768 he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The fort was built using fire-baked bricks giving it the name Pacco Qillo(Sindhi: پڪو قلعو) meaning the strong fort.
After the death of the last Kalhoro, the Talpur dynasty ruled the region. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the Land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers were responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their rule. The four were called char yar, Sindhi for the four friends.
The City has a history of Sufism. In the 18th Century Syeds from Multan migrated and settled at Tando Jahania making it a sacred place for Muslims. These Syeds came here fromUch Sharif (Bahawalpur District) via Jahanian (Khanewal District 42 km from Multan). These were the descendants of Jahaniyan Jahangasht a famous sufi saint. The family’s lineage is linked to Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari of Uch Sharif( Punjab, Pakistan).Tando Jahania is a small town in the city known for Sufism and Azadari.
The Baloch Talpur rule lasted almost over 50 years and in 1843, Talpurs faced a greater threat, the invasion of expanding British colonial empire. The British wanted to annex Sindhdue to their strategic interests in the Punjab region and Afghanistan. The Talpur Amir signed a peace agreement that gave significant concessions to the British. After signing this peace agreement Amir Talpur demobilized his volunteer army. The British General Napier also started to march his army back towards Bombay. When the General Napier heard that the Talpur Amir had demobilised his Baloch army he turned back his army and again threatened Hyderabad. The peace agreement with Talpur Amir was of no consequence compared to the strategic interests of the British colonial empire. The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the Battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. General Napierwas firmly determined in conquering Sindh and plundering Hyderabad. The battle ended on 24 March 1843 when the Talpur Amirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British. The Amirs of Hyderabad suffered great loss, their Fort was plundered, thousands were killed and Amirs themselves were exiled to Rangoon, Burma – never to see Sindh again. The British made the city part of the Bombay Presidency of British colonial empire.
At the time of independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Muhajirs began to immigrate to Pakistan and many settled in the city of Hyderabad. These refugee Muslim lost everything in India and were settled in refugee camps. This hostility translated into communal tension in Hyderabad between Muslim refugees and local Hindus; After independence of Pakistan, Hindus expected to remain in Sindh, however a large number of them left due to communal violence or due to better socio-economic prospects in India.
The massive migration of (Muhajirs) who began mass migration into Pakistan after independence of Pakistan in 1947 raised the population levels of the city to extremes. The late 1980s saw a black period in the history of Hyderabad as riots and violence broke out between the Muhajirs, and the indigenous Sindhi nationalist parties due to which the social fabric of the city was damaged