Sukkur

Sukkur

سكهّر
—  City  —
Sukkur سکر(Sindhi)

Ayub Bridge (front) and Lansdowne Railway Bridgeon River Indus near Sukkur

Sukkur is located in Sindh

سكهّر
Coordinates: 27°41′N 68°52′ECoordinates27°41′N 68°52′E
Country Pakistan
Province Sindh
Government
 • Nazim Nasir Hussain Shah
Area
 • Total 5,165 km2(1,994 sq mi)
Elevation 67 m (220 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 850,000
 • Density 164.6/km2(426/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Calling code 071
Number of towns 4
Number of Union councils 1
Sukkur District Website

Sukkur, or Sakharu (Urduسكهّر‎), [səkʰəru], (Sindhi: سکر), formerly Aror (Urdu: اروڑ[əroːɽ]) and Bakar, is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus River in Pakistan in Sukkur District. However, the word Sakharu in Sindhi means “superior”, which the spelling of the city’s name in Sindhi suggests is the origin of the name. Sukkur is nicknamed Darya Dino (درياءَ ڏنو, meaning the gift of river), as without the Indus the city would be a desert. People of Sukkur speak Sindhi (72%),Urdu (15.5%), Punjabi (4%), Pashto (1.5%), Balochi (1%), and others 1%.[citation needed]

Contents

[hide]

[edit]Administration

The city of Sukkur, as well as being district headquarters, is the capital of Sukkur Talukas and contains many Union council.[1]

[edit]Sukkur district

Main article: Sukkur District

A Satellite Image of River Indus near Sukkur by NASA

The district of Sukkur (whose name is derived from its head quarter Sukkur city) covers an area of 5,165 square kilometres. Geographically it is spanned from 27°05′ to 28°02′ north latitudes and from 68°47′ to 69°43′ east longitudes. The city of Sukkur is located at an altitude of 220 feet (67 m) from sea level, having terrestrial coordinates 68°52′ east and 27°42′ north. It is also the narrowest point of the lower Indus course.[citation needed]

Sukkur district shares its northern border with Shikarpur and the recently constitutedKashmore districts. Ghotki is located on the north-eastern side while Khairpur on the south. The border with India lies further east. Sukkur is also connected by road and by air with all major cities of Pakistan.[citation needed]

[edit]Climate

The climate of the Sukkur is characterized by hot and hazy weather during summer days with dry and cold weather in winter. During January, the temperature ranges from 7 to 22 °C (45 to 72 °F). The summer (month of June before the monsoon) temperature averages35 °C (95 °F) though it often reaches up to 42 °C (108 °F). Generally the summer season commences in March – April and ends before October. The average rainfall of the district is 88 mm, and ranges from 0.59 mm to 25.62 mm per month.[citation needed]

[edit]History

Sukkur on the west bank of the River Indus (1860s)

Sukkur has been an important strategic centre and trading route from time immemorial.Alor (or Aror, Sukkur) held the status of capital under the reign of Musikanos, whenAlexander invaded the region in 326 BCE. The ruins of this ancient town still exist, 8 km east of Rohri, in Sukkur district. The Rai Dynasty built a huge temple of Shiva. In 711 CE, the Arabs invaded Sindh, led by 17 year old Muhammad bin Qasim, and Sukkur (including all of Sindh and lower Punjab) became part of the Umayyad Caliphate.[citation needed]

Later Mughals and many semi-autonomous tribes ruled over Sukkur. The city was ceded to Mirs of Khairpur between 1809 and 1824. In 1833, Shah Shuja (a warlord ofKandaharAfghanistan) defeated the Talpurs near Sukkur and later made a solemn treaty with the Talpur ruler, by which he relinquished all claims on Sindh. In 1843, the British (General Charles James Napier) defeated the Talpurs at the battles of Miani andDubbo near Hyderabad. Sukkur, along with the rest of Sindh, was under British rule until the independence of Pakistan in 1947. The (current) district of Sukkur was constituted in 1901 out of part of Shikarpur District, the remainder of which was formed into the Larkana District. Sukkur saw a significant socio-economic uplift after the 1930s, when the British built the world’s largest barrage here on theIndus River. The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence ofPakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Sukkur.

[edit]Sukkur Barrage

The Sukkur Barrage has 66[citation needed] Gates. The Sukkur Barrage (formally called Lloyd Barrage), built under the British Raj on theIndus River, controls one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. It was designed by Sir Arnold Musto KCIE, and constructed under the overall direction of Sir Charlton Harrison, KCIE, as Chief Engineer. Construction of the barrage was started in 1923 and completed in January 1932. The 5,001 feet (1,524 m) long barrage is made of yellow stone and steel and can water nearly 10 million acres (40,000 km2) of farmland through its seven large canals. Some of the canals are larger than the Suez Canal.

In November 2004, the government of Pakistan initiated a rehabilitation project to revitalize its water storage capacity and distribution efficiency. The project was completed in July 2005, (with less than the allocated amount of Rs. 887 million). Experts believe that the rehabilitation of the barrage has enhanced its efficiency for another 60 to 70 years.[citation needed]

[edit]Economy

[edit]Industry

Sukkur is a hub of many small and large scale industries. Among important industries are cotton textiles, cementleathertobacco, paint and varnish, pharmaceuticals, agriculture implements, hand pumps, lock making, rice-husking, and sugar. Small-scale cottage industries comprise hosiery, boat making, fishing accessories, thread ball spooling, trunk making brass-wares, cutlery andceramics.[citation needed]

[edit]Agriculture

Sukkur had a large fertile and cultivable land area until a few decades ago, when the Indus river was not as barren as today. Now its agricultural productivity has been much reduced. It has not achieved a reasonable yield per unit area over time, on account of continuous shortages of water and ignorance of modern irrigation systems. Despite the lack of water, during kharif, rice, bajra, cotton, tomatoes and peas are cultivated; whereas during rabi the main crops are wheat, barley, graham and melons. Sukkur is famous, world over, for itsdelicious dates. Sukkur also has a large Riveraine forest along the course of the Indus. These tropical forests are found within the protective embankments on either side of the Indus. During 1997-98 the total area under forests was 510 km2 which yielded 55,000 cubic feet (1,600 m3) of timber and 27,000 cubic feet (760 m3) of firewood besides other mine products.[citation needed]

[edit]Education

There are many educational institutes in Sukkur, for details please see List of educational institutions in Sukkur

[edit]Famous schools

[edit]Colleges

[edit]Higher education institutes

[edit]Sites of interest

This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. (June 2011)

Manzilgah Mosque at Bundar Road, Indus River

Sadh Belo ساڌ ٻيلو Temple on river Indus

Sateen Jo Aastan is situated near the Ayub bridge.

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